You may have noticed most temperatures for food and other baking in the oven don't range below or above a scale of temperatures despite the oven being capable of them. Would you like to know why?
When you cook, you're trying to get heat from outside the food to inside the food.
There's lots of different ways to do that. Baking in an oven isn't actually very efficient! You can sear a steak on a very hot skillet in 2-3 minutes, but baking the same steak to the right doneness might take an hour in an oven. Because the oven's so bad at getting heat inside food, trying to turn the heat to the same levels as the skillet will leave you with a completely burned outside and a near-raw inside in a hurry.
There's also certain chemical things that happen in food when we cook it. At very high temperatures, beef "browns", which creates very pleasant and complex flavors. That's why fancy steaks are almost always seared. You can bake a smaller steak in an oven, but you'll never quite get the same kind of flavor that searing creates. Low temperatures also do things! Pot roasts are generally tough cuts of meat, but after being kept in a slow cooker at around 200 degrees for hours, the heat will have broken down much of the tissue that makes the meat tough and turned it into a tender, tasty meal. Brisket and many other cuts are almost inedible unless cooked this way.
That's beef, though. Why do most of the things we cook fall in the 350-425 degree range? Well, I'm thinking of a lot of the things I throw in the oven. Frozen pizzas, frozen snacks... I'm not trying to cook those so much as warm them. But "hot air" isn't super good at getting heat inside food. So if I crank the heat up too high, I'll burn the outside and have a frozen inside. (Microwaves are the opposite: they're better at getting heat inside food.
That's why pizza rolls take 20 minutes in the oven but only 2 minutes in the microwave. But that kind of 'heat' isn't so good at browning, so it never crisps them quite right, does it?)
That's what's going on with a lot of foods, too. Go much hotter than 425 and the heat can't penetrate the food fast enough to stop you from burning too much. Go much lower than 350 and it's going to take hours to heat the food enough, and in many foods like bread it might be important to generate some steam before certain reactions finish. That's why a lot of instructions for baking turkeys suggest cooking at two different temperatures. In one phase, the goal is to slowly get heat inside the turkey without drying out or burning the outside. In the other phase, the goal is to brown the outside to create more flavor.
In general, I wanted to cover "high heat burns the outside before the middle gets hot enough, low heat takes too long and can't brown". It's not an exhaustive guide to the science of cooking. There's lots of dishes that can't take 300 degrees, lots of processes like denaturing proteins I didn't get into, etc. I already feel like the post is too long for, I couldn't talk about every potential interaction.
Similarly, I appreciate corrections on how microwaves work, but again that was really a one-off example. I know about how microwaves excite water molecules, and that moisture content matters, etc. It's still true a microwave can cook, say, a chicken breast much faster than an oven but in so doing you miss out on things like browning. All of this makes the post even longer and distracts from answering, "Why do we bake things within a specific temperature range."
Sometimes, when explaining complicated topics to people who want a rough answer, it helps to make gross oversimplifications. I think is far more appropriate for the level of detail most of you are striving to find!
And yes, I do cook more things than pizza rolls. But it's a lot easier for people to relate to pizza rolls than "that time I made spanakopita", and if I'd started talking about baking bread I'd have been WAY too encouraged to get into the chemical details.
Cooking often involves a LOT of complex chemistry, and delicate balancing acts of temperature.